Likewise, if you use the -c option with gunzip, it writes uncompressed data to standard output. The Socket constructor used here (there are three others) requires the name of the machine and the port Now, EchoTest merely needs to write to the output stream and read from the input stream to communicate The readLine() method blocks until the server echos the information back to EchoTest. The only valid value at present (and the default) is C-Method =E Z_DEFLATED>. Following the api examples I've come up with something that appears to work, however it seems to be leaking memory as the usage reported by 'top' for t. flush() when you need the data written to actually make it to the client. In fact an exception will be raised when you perform any reading operation on it. The InputStream and OutputStream classes are for reading and writing streams of bytes, while the So far, we've used a variety of stream classes to manipulate streaming data, but the data itself You can write the object's bytes to a compression stream or even write the bytes to a stream. This +is the file written by B--configure> and read when grabbing. • A data compression method is called universal if the compressor and decompressor do not Values greater than 1 mean an output stream bigger than the input stream (negative Relative compression is used to measure the compression gain in lossless audio compression methods. When buffer get full then data is written to output (File,console etc. at the very least passing the pre-parsed authority and path sections into the stream_open and the parsed out path in to the path. The following examples both extract members with long list output: $ tar --extract --file=archive. Introduction. Deflating writes a compressed representation of bytes to an output stream. 5: public final void writeBytes(String s) throws IOException. A delta backup image is a copy of all database data that has changed since the most recent successful backup operation of any type. The storage cost savings can be important, but the reduction in I/O costs can be even more valuable. Working with beagle (java software), made me noticing that most of "modern language" Suppose you want to compress directly a big file that you generate with any (let say fortran) program. ‘‘ 2003 SAXO-C3-XSARA XSARA PICASSO-BERLINGO «The technical information contained in this document is intended for the exclusive use of the trained personnel of the motor vehicle repair trade. This article describes the basic (and some limitations) of the XLSX engine. If file already exists, you will be prompted as to whether it should be overwritten. - Numbers, booleans, and null values can now be read from object streams. To use this app, you need to add files to CSS or JS panels (or both), choose Output file and click Build. It is probably a wise choice not to use gzip, since other locations (where you are sending the package), may NOT have gzip, since it is not native to Solaris. Move up for the kill on Elidibs, and let the Byblos use Difference for a good 999 damage. Binary Streams are responsible for low level input output operations in Java. Compress::Raw::Zlib::Deflate. If it is decompression, the wrapped data will be the compressed data that will be written as output. You can also use mtree:!all to disable all keywords. I am with technical upgrade and greater use of remote sensing techniques. The write method of OutputStream calls the write method of one argument on each of the bytes to be written out. That would corrupt binary data, and in particular would render the compressed data unusable. When you encode or filter data, you must specify a character set for your Web pages so that your filter can The following example creates a series of constants that are written to an ASP. The zlib function inflate, and so the inflate method supplied in this module, assume that there is at least one trailing byte after the compressed data stream. These streams are classified as mode streams as they read and write data from disk files. Reducing the size of a frame reduces the time required to transmit the frame across the network. The methods declared in this files are used for manipulating streams. The opinions expressed in these weblogs and hence this aggregation are those of the original authors. To create an RFC 1951 data stream, set WindowBits to -MAX_WBITS. ORA-01173: data dictionary indicates missing data file from system tablespace ORA-01174: DB_FILES is buts needs to be to be compatible ORA-01175: data dictionary has more than the files allowed by the instance ORA-01176: data dictionary has more than the files allowed by the controlfie. -- NoCompression Do not compress the source files. "zip" is RFC-1951 ZIP compression which is used by PGP. CALL METHOD csref->compress_text_stream EXPORTING TEXT_IN = 'Some text' TEXT_IN_LEN = -1. Another optimization often used in the blaze-builder library is to ensure that costly operations are amortized over enough bytes being output. Such standardisation efforts are currently being undertaken. h that are used for file I/O. PDF | Data Compression is the science and art of representing information in a compact form. Writes to a file. We developed this program as a replacement for compress because of the Unisys and IBM patents covering the LZW algorithm used by. The same index that is used in the symbol table can be referenced in the SHT_GNU_versym section, and the value of this index is then used to acquire name data. Large File Problems in Modern Unices 290 Posted by CmdrTaco on Sunday January 26, 2003 @10:53AM from the stuff-to-deal-with dept. with the new XD_UNION, we no longer need event data as separate objects, so this code is no longer ifdef USE_KKCC, but instead ifdef EVENT_DATA_AS_OBJECTS, not used by default. Create a zip entry for each file that is read: 4. But they all have in common that they are taking data that is repeating and only store it once and have a system of knowing how to uncompress them (putting the repeated segments back in place) Here is a s. PDF | Data Compression is the science and art of representing information in a compact form. For example, multiple stream filters might be used when processing data sent to, or received from, a network socket, where. (An IM option to get one PPM pixel per line would be useful, to aid post-processing. So if you have more than 2,500,000 KB free memory, zstd will use long range method with --long=31 for 2GB window. (or both) When the MOSFET has about 3. Move up for the kill on Elidibs, and let the Byblos use Difference for a good 999 damage. > 1) I want to know how to be able to include an image embedded in the > code somehow rather than as a seperate, external file (this way > there's no pathing issue possible when compiling the thing). dat if it does not exist and opens the file so you can write to it. If you have less than 2,500,00 KB free memory, zstd will use long range method with --long=27 for 128MB window. It is probably a wise choice not to use gzip, since other locations (where you are sending the package), may NOT have gzip, since it is not native to Solaris. If you need to compress a file that's larger than that, you'll need to download and install a third-party compression program. pdfToolbox simplifies this by allowing remote configuration and remote monitoring of any pdfToolbox installation. for being friendly by baring all of our sweetest tortures. MBR code performs the following actions:. 2008-11-25 Sergey Poznyakoff Do not try to drain the input pipe before closing the archive. - Messages requiring a response will not be compressed - Xymonproxy also accepts the --compress option. Used by class CompressedDataOutputStream for content compression. The first parameter stream is the pointer to the file. Net" was added to the file successfully. Roughly equivalent to:. Simple and easy-to-use to compress and reduce the size of your PDF files, regardless of any previous experience. This stream is a write-only. My wish list for Stata 14 is pretty modest. Our experiments indicate that failing to use -compress results in Rsync sending 190% more bytes overall (all) on this data set. > 1) I want to know how to be able to include an image embedded in the > code somehow rather than as a seperate, external file (this way > there's no pathing issue possible when compiling the thing). FileOutputStream is an output stream for writing data to a File or to a FileDescriptor. Reads from stdin or writes to stdout, and is a base58 encoded multihash. conf) and creates an initrd file that contains all the needed kernel modules for the system to run (e. -v Verbose. gz files use gzip and for. PROG should follow two conventions: First, when invoked without additional options, it should read data from standard input, compress it and output it on standard output. com,2017-10-24:/guide/macos-clean-install/. fstream for reading and writing from/to one file. Presented code works ok so far. For output messages, CICS® provides user exits with access to the entire output data stream. The output from programs is usually written to the screen, while their input usually comes from the keyboard (if no file arguments are given). This article describes data output options available in Azure Stream Analytics, including Power BI for analysis results. I am trying to model an impact on a biological tissue. Getting it wrong is risky because client software might rely on this and could lock up in a wait cycle or display incomplete data. The advantages of using a SAS compressed data set are reduced storage requirements for the data set and fewer input/output operations necessary to read from and write to the data set during processing. Data compression reduces the size of data frames to be transmitted over a network link. Below you can find a step-by-step guide for using Handbrake to compress your video. Note however that some filters are internally defined in terms of other filters. Read all the data for n rows, compress the data and write the compressed data to an output stream. The 10 day numbers above are for my "write limited" SSD. Binary Streams are responsible for low level input output operations in Java. Z already exists. Have a great day, Yuri. use VoxelGrid filter to remove duplicate cloud outputed from octree compression. This is a good option to use if you're running compress or uncompress in the background and don't want it to fail on any files. My problem is to write universal code that take char stream or file as input and output , don't know how to project classes and what c++ techniques I have to take. When an HTTP/2 stream was destroyed after being handled, the Apache HTTP Server prior to version 2. The data from the application is first written into the stream. If enabled (the default), data objects that shall be stored in the journal and are larger than the default threshold of When a systemd unit's standard output/error are connected to the journal via a stream socket, the data read is With the first method, messages are immediately forwarded to a socket. AFAIK, Compress::Zlib is just an interface to the zlib library. (or both) When the MOSFET has about 3. Certain data types are inherently less compressible than others, which can realize up to a 6:1 compression ratio. "zlib" is RFC-1950 ZLIB compression. log output will indicate which queues are blocked. Also noteworthy is the LZR (Lempel-Ziv–Renau) algorithm, which serves as the basis for the Zip method. Compress::Raw::Zlib::Deflate. Set XYMON_COMPRESS=1 in the environment when sending a xymon message, or pass the --compress option to the xymon binary itself to use. When making backups, it usually makes sense to compress the data. close(); byte[] output = outputStream. Recall that Flickr does use easeInOutQuart for some of its easing although the transition here appears to be more pronounced because a larger object(the background image) is being moved. As long as the stream can seek this is simple to do. The compressed data format generated is in the gzip, zlib, or single-entry zip format using the deflate compression method. To output a TAR archive instead of unpacked files, use '--archive' or '-a'. Since many versions of Info-Zip's tools do not include support for the "shrink" compression method in the pre-built binaries, PKWare's software is sometimes. By default, TSM displays information about each file it backs up. _ is a technique that is very commonly used to compress video images. A little over 860 KB of storage is being used. higher value, better quality. This article describes the basic (and some limitations) of the XLSX engine. Build an Instagram clone with AngularJS, Satellizer, Node. You can use the compression advisor in DBMS_COMPRESSION to see how compressable you data might be. It will * be converted to a double, which should always have 64 bit length. Deflating writes a compressed representation of bytes to an output stream. To create an RFC 1951 data stream, set WindowBits to -MAX_WBITS. The importance of having a clear process and knowing your development steps can’t be understated. Defines the compression method. A byte array containing GZIP bytes can be translated into It is possible to use a wrapper method around the GZipStream and other streams. Reducing the size of a frame reduces the time required to transmit the frame across the network. The memory pools maintained by the server make this vulnerability hard to trigger in usual configurations, the reporter and the team could not reproduce it outside. 1, the maximum number of variables in a SAS data set is limited by the resources available on your computer-but SAS data sets with more than 32,767 variables cannot be used with earlier versions of SAS. Since the argument "int" comprises four bytes, as par the contract only the first low order byte is written and OutputStream primarily writes a byte stream to a destination, but it can as well transform the data before doing so. You can achieve this by calling res. A dictionary coder, also sometimes known as a substitution coder, is a class of lossless data compression algorithms which operate by searching for matches between the text to be compressed and a set of strings contained in a data structure (called the 'dictionary') maintained by the encoder. This software was popular shareware, and supported a compression method known as "shrink" which wasn't extensively used (as the inflate/deflate method usually provided better compression). Most applications use the shared library provided by the “zlib1g” package; however, some packages. 006 ; require Exporter; use AutoLoader; use Carp ; use bytes ; our ($VERSION, $XS_VERSION, @ISA. This mirroring between organic and virtual systems became apparent when listening to hours of results from the neural network - there was something akin to watching a patch of earth becoming populated with a small ecosystem of grass, flowers, pollinators - with every output being in a relationship to both the original data that the system had. if you want to perform i/o operations for boolean, char, byte, short, int, long, float, double or Strings then data streams provide a very convenient and an efficient way for that. The easing that is being used is a cubic-bezier(. The stream writer is used to write data to a file using streams. Compress::Raw::Zlib::Deflate. Master Boot Record (MBR) The MBR is infected with a code that is similar to other bootkits such as Mebroot or eEye BootRoot. My problem is to write universal code that take char stream or file as input and output , don't know how to project classes and what c++ techniques I have to take. Create a zip entry for each file that is read: 4. • A data compression method is called universal if the compressor and decompressor do not Values greater than 1 mean an output stream bigger than the input stream (negative Relative compression is used to measure the compression gain in lossless audio compression methods. When used with the identify utility, or the convert utility with output written to the 'info:-' file specification, use this option to print information about the image in a format of your choosing. I need to define the impact in two steps, at the first step, the impactor moves slowly and compress the tissue till it reaches a certain value of load, and then second step begins where the real impact will be excreted. For consecutive writes, we can reduce the cost of appending them using the following Monoid instance. Working with beagle (java software), made me noticing that most of "modern language" Suppose you want to compress directly a big file that you generate with any (let say fortran) program. toByteArray() Howto compress and uncompress a Java byte array using JDK Deflater/Inflater. The first should be a subroutine reference that takes the data to compress as a single octet stream argument and returns an octet stream to store. UrlEncode to encode output URLs if they are constructed from input. The easing that is being used is a cubic-bezier(. I need to define the impact in two steps, at the first step, the impactor moves slowly and compress the tissue till it reaches a certain value of load, and then second step begins where the real impact will be excreted. The default is the compression type of the specified image file. q Beginning with SAS 9. (or both) When the MOSFET has about 3. Originally designed for ripping DVDs, it is the most popular tool for creating H264 video from any video file or DVD disc. 264 and MJPEG encoding are supported. If youre interested, go read the readme and give it a try. When you reach a leaf node, the character stored in the leaf node should be written to the output stream. internal Open called a syscall to open. void flush() This method flushes this output stream and forces any buffered output bytes to be written out. It is written in C and interfaces to the X library, and therefore does not require any proprietary toolkit in order to compile. Later a means to include symbolic links was added. If file already exists, you will be prompted as to whether it should be overwritten. PROC COPY and PROC APPEND: A Developer’s Secrets Diane Olson, SAS Institute Inc. Use compression algorithm name. The default is C-Level =E Z_DEFAULT_COMPRESSION>. You can use compressed air for spot cooling or even Refrigeration for smaller volumes, however it's relatively inefficient, pretty noisy, and requires a constant supply of relatively high volume and pressure compressed air. It is the algorithm of the widely used Unix file compression utility compress, and is used in the GIF image format. Listeners are then added to handle the data output by the CameraX library — which can be either in the form of a data stream or written directly to a file. This is different from before in the way they treat the data. Data compression reduces the size of data frames to be transmitted over a network link. Planet TriLUG is an aggregation of public weblogs written by members of the Triangle Linux Users Group. /, but an alternate path can be specified with '--output=' or '-o='. To ILUGC geek people those who guiding / helping us from the beginning. That being the case, you may need to become skilled at shuffling data between some sort of bulk storage pool and the machine doing the work. Similarly, the high-level output functions write a stream of characters that are displayed at the current cursor location in a screen buffer. This class implements an output stream filter for compressing data in the “deflate” compression format. configs" to configure the portal to use one database cluster for read calls and another database cluster for write calls. The metrics. As Vandevenne writes in the announcement today, "the exhaustive method is based on iterating entropy modeling and a shortest path search algorithm to find a low bit cost path through the graph of. When an HTTP/2 stream was destroyed after being handled, the Apache HTTP Server prior to version 2. Master Boot Record (MBR) The MBR is infected with a code that is similar to other bootkits such as Mebroot or eEye BootRoot. Writes to a file. Read all the data for n rows, compress the data and write the compressed data to an output stream. "uncompressed" or "none" disables compression. It is almost same as Inflate. js server using BinaryJS websockets. Because of the approach "let's hide failure and hope the user bomber doesn't notice". To use the older, obsolete, compress program, use the --compress (--uncompress, -Z) option. The methods declared in this files are used for manipulating streams. Download an alternative compression program for files larger than 4 GB. Now that we have an output stream that compresses the data, we need to Since we are extending the Socket class to provide sockets that communicate using data. The general purpose of a GPU is to relieve the CPU of the responsibility for a significant portion of rendering. Using the code. Though originally interested in building. jar of the lib directory. Have a great day, Yuri. Both Linux and UNIX include various commands for Compressing and decompresses (read as expand compressed file). The output below shows the LOB_DATA pages are being used again. higher value, better quality. Here is a definition of the interface available:. location / BackupFolder / BackupFile. This library uses what are called streams to operate with physical devices such as keyboards, printers, terminals or with any other type of files supported by the system. Subclass of OutputStream is used to write data onto a network connection. To use this app, you need to add files to CSS or JS panels (or both), choose Output file and click Build. Question ID 84. "zip" is RFC-1951 ZIP compression which is used by PGP. In technical terms, we say that processes usually write to standard output (the screen) and take their input from standard input (the keyboard). Eurographics Workshop on Visual Computing for Biology and Medicine, Vienna, Austria, September 4–5, 2014, Eurographics Workshop on Visual Computing for. The ZipOutputStream can be used to compress data to a ZIP file. Writes to a file. This will help with storage and retrieval greatly for data pipelines that can be processed easily through ASA. the classes associated with these streams have constructos that allows us to specify the path of the file to which they are connected. tar was developed on an OS that used hard links, and physical files that were referred to more than once in the list of files to be included were included only once, the remaining instances being added as links. This is written to the. To create an RFC 1951 data stream, set WindowBits to -MAX_WBITS. PS BAM - posted in IE Modding Tools: My little pet project, PS BAM, is now on GitHub. FileOutputStream provide methods for writing bytes to a file and we can create an instance of FileOutputStream using below constructors. Another optimization often used in the blaze-builder library is to ensure that costly operations are amortized over enough bytes being output. codec and i tried both, the parquet file with snappy compression of size 270k gets. • Included in Syllable Server • GZip - Compression tool 1. DELTA Specifies a noncumulative (delta) backup image. Recall that Flickr does use easeInOutQuart for some of its easing although the transition here appears to be more pronounced because a larger object(the background image) is being moved. Byte Streams are used to read or write byte data with files. I am trying to model an impact on a biological tissue. Note that if you don't assign this event, the default method will be used, and this will try to find the font on the Fonts folder. You can include the image filename, type, width, height, Exif data, or other image attributes by embedding special format characters:. Simple and easy-to-use to compress and reduce the size of your PDF files, regardless of any previous experience. It encompasses a wide variety of software and hardware compression. See miff for details. =item B-Method> Defines the compression method. PROG should follow two conventions: First, when invoked without additional options, it should read data from standard input, compress it and output it on standard output. The usual stream classes ofstream (output file stream) and ifstream (input file stream) are still the types of streams to use. It writes data to an output stream in zip file format. valid values for this parameter: -- Fastest Use the fastest compression method available to decrease processing time; this can result in larger file sizes. 069-1build1_amd64 NAME Compress::Raw::Lzma - Low-Level Interface to lzma compression library SYNOPSIS use Compress::Raw::Lzma. for being friendly by baring all of our sweetest tortures. Project Management Content Management System (CMS) Task Management Project Portfolio Management Time Tracking PDF. codec","snappy"); As per blog it is compression. Defines the compression method. The gzip module provides the GzipFile class When fileobj is not None, the filename argument is only used to be included in the gzip file header Compress the data, returning a bytes object containing the compressed data. if you want to perform i/o operations for boolean, char, byte, short, int, long, float, double or Strings then data streams provide a very convenient and an efficient way for that. The above are just the special lists generated from various sources. PDF Compressor V3 is a quick and reliable application with rather powerful compression features. 4th line determines which zstd long range method is used depending on how much free memory you have available. of the compressed data +stream. It (usually) cannot go back and adjust something it has. Explain the term inter-process communication. "zip" is RFC-1951 ZIP compression which is used by PGP. use VoxelGrid filter to remove duplicate cloud outputed from octree compression. Can I access data randomly in a compressed stream? + + No, not without some preparation. We have used it in our earlier programs We need to obtain the stream and convert the information in that stream into meaningful data like The Scanner class has several methods which are used to take different types of inputs. ORA-24810: attempting to write more data than indicated. All methods in FileInputStream/FileOutputStream are inherited from InputStream/OutputStream. 25 years ago, I used to use file compression and save a lot of space, but now, I doubt if I’d save one gigabyte out of 250 GB on my SSD. It is used to write char to the output stream as a 2-byte value. Most applications use the shared library provided by the “zlib1g” package; however, some packages. On most platforms restoring the access time also requires tar to restore the data modification time too, so this option may also cause problems if other programs are writing the file at the same time (tar attempts to detect this situation, but cannot do so reliably due to race conditions). Copy OutputStream to InputStream Using NIO Channels. xmltv/tv_grab_fi_sv. Home; web; books; video; audio; software; images; Toggle navigation. Conversely, output streams are used to hold output for a particular data consumer, such as a monitor, a file, or a printer. If you need to compress a file that's larger than that, you'll need to download and install a third-party compression program. Worse, on most platforms restoring the access time also. Avoid to store String type. How long should this process take? Mine's been chugging along for about a half hour for a 60 mb file. To ILUGC geek people those who guiding / helping us from the beginning. Flushes the output stream and forces any buffered output bytes to be written out. Use compression: if want CPU first, use LZ4; if balanced, use Snappy. Have a great day, Yuri. Calling a GZIP method should be simple. From the output, you can see that the line "Guru99 - ASP. If you have less than 2,500,00 KB free memory, zstd will use long range method with --long=27 for 128MB window. pgm -type TrueColor bird. used 7zip , java , c libraries readily accessible. pdfToolbox simplifies this by allowing remote configuration and remote monitoring of any pdfToolbox installation. You can use the compression advisor in DBMS_COMPRESSION to see how compressable you data might be. The data compression is provided by the zlib module. The bit is used to determine whether to go left or right in the Huffman tree. Also for declaring the logfile location, we used FILE keyword. These methods will write the specific primitive type data into the output stream as bytes. Huffman coding is an entropy encoding method used for lossless data. Use the HttpUtility. If any bytes that are previously written and have been buffered by the implementation of the output stream then such Such bytes should be immediately written to their expected destination. Writes to a file. This option is used only by client programs. org to report any issue with the above content. There are types and functions in the library stdio. Device with traditional, straight amniotomes made of non-glare plastic, with flat handle for maneuverability and molded sides to ensure a nonslip grip and. expMethods: a vector of character strings for the available methods that can be used as a summary method of. Computer science is really only marginally about computers. If PNM is used as the output format specifier, then ImageMagick automagically selects the most appropriate format to represent the image. A stream is either a file or a buffer in memory. It doesn't take much time to compress an archive, and anyway one does not access backups very often. Couldn't this be used to iteratively re-compress the compressed data using the same algorithm? Any algorithm that claims to be able to compress all arbitrary data can be recursively applied to its own output such that any data is compressed to 0 bits. The Dual Channel MOSFET - one output is shorted or open. It's in the tools. All three classes are defined in. The excellent manner in which the scales and micrometers are mounted, the employment of a compound microscope for viewing the scales, with its ingeniously arranged and admirably efficient reversing prism, and the perfection of its slow motions for focusing and reading, combine to render this a most accurate and convenient instrument for very refined measures, although too slow for work in. You can use getBytes() to do so: GZIPOutputStream gout = new GZIPOutputStream(out); // Code to read from your original uncompressed data and write to out. Be aware that the file's type/creator and resource fork will be lost, which is usually what you want in cross-platform archives. DELTA Specifies a noncumulative (delta) backup image. Todd Sundsted has been writing programs since computers became available in convenient desktop models. Planet TriLUG is an aggregation of public weblogs written by members of the Triangle Linux Users Group. Most data compression algorithms are described in terms of abstract "streams" of data of indefinite length. PPM: RW: Portable pixmap format. So, if you forget to close an output file then whatever is still in the buffer may. There are various ways to encode text, so it first uses the Encoding class to convert the text to a UTF8 encoded byte. Use -compress None to get text output. Set XYMON_COMPRESS=1 in the environment when sending a xymon message, or pass the --compress option to the xymon binary itself to use. The zlib function inflate, and so the inflate method supplied in this module, assume that there is at least one trailing byte after the compressed data stream. “Stream” is a more general term because the compressed data may be transmitted directly to the decoder, instead of being written to a file and saved. Issuu is a digital publishing platform that makes it simple to publish magazines, catalogs, newspapers, books, and more online. -u, --local-user name Use name as the user ID to sign. All the 3 lines of text can be seen in the console. Binary Streams are responsible for low level input output operations in Java. · Audit Trail. Log files, ntp drift files, man db rebuilds, opensm topology updates, etc, etc. When reading a specially crafted ZIP archive, the read method of Apache Commons Compress 1. User code can be written to remove redundant characters from the data stream before the data stream is sent to the terminal. PROG should follow two conventions: First, when invoked without additional options, it should read data from standard input, compress it and output it on standard output. All methods in FileInputStream/FileOutputStream are inherited from InputStream/OutputStream. This is different from before in the way they treat the data. For consecutive writes, we can reduce the cost of appending them using the following Monoid instance. 17's ZipArchiveInputStream can fail to return the correct EOF indication after the end of the stream has been reached. paq8 on other hand, outperforms lzma. That being said, software is never really “finished. Implementation Details [] End Handling []. h , and use that instead. The high-level input functions filter and process the data in a console's input buffer to return input as a stream of characters, discarding mouse and buffer-resizing input. _ is a technique that is very commonly used to compress video images.